An analysis of lateral blast the sudden

The sudden removal of the upper part of the volcano by the landslides triggered the almost instantaneous expansion explosion of high temperature-high pressure steam present in cracks and voids in the volcano and of gases dissolved in the magma that caused the bulge of the cryptodome. The abrupt pressure release, or "uncorking," of the volcano by the debris avalanche can be compared in some ways to the sudden removal of the cap or a thumb from a vigorously shaken bottle of soda pop, or to punching a hole in a boiler tank under high pressure. Helens, the "uncorking" unleashed a tremendous, northward-directed lateral blast of rock, ash, and hot gases that devastated an area of about square miles in a fan-shaped sector north of the volcano.

An analysis of lateral blast the sudden

The sudden removal of the upper part of the volcano by the landslides triggered the almost instantaneous expansion explosion of high temperature-high pressure steam present in cracks and voids in the volcano and of gases dissolved in the magma that caused the bulge of the cryptodome.

The abrupt pressure release, or "uncorking," of the volcano by the debris avalanche can be compared in some ways to the sudden removal of the cap or a thumb from a vigorously shaken bottle of soda pop, or to punching a hole in a boiler tank under high pressure.

Helens, the "uncorking" unleashed a tremendous, northward-directed lateral blast of rock, ash, and hot gases that devastated an area of about square miles in a fan-shaped sector north of the volcano.

To the south, the devastated area was much less, extending only a small distance downslope from the summit. Along with older volcanic debris, the blast also included the first magmatic material erupted by Mount St. Helens, indicating that the landslides and the ensuing blast had exposed the cryptodome magma.

What appear to be blades of mown grass are actually large trees, some over feet tall, flattened by the tremendous force of the lateral blast, even out to distances as far as 19 miles from the volcano Photograph by Daniel Dzurisin.

Although the lateral blast began some seconds later than the debris avalanche, the blast's velocity was much greater, so that it soon overtook the avalanche.

An analysis of lateral blast the sudden

Calculations have shown that the blast's initial velocity of about miles an hour quickly increased to about miles an hour. The average velocity did not surpass the speed of sound in the atmosphere about miles an hour. This observation is consistent with the lack of reports of loud atmospheric shocks or "sonic booms" from nearby observers such as Keith and Dorothy Stoffel in the light plane or survivors on the ground.

In some areas near the blast front, however, the velocity may have approached, or even exceeded, the supersonic rate for a few moments.

The blast was widely heard hundreds of miles away in the Pacific Northwest, including parts of British Columbia, Montana, Idaho, and northern California.

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Yet, in many areas much closer to Mount St. Helens--for example, Portland, Oregon, only 50 miles away--the blast was not heard.

Subsequent studies by the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry demonstrated a so-called "quiet zone" around Mount St. Helens, extending radially a few tens of miles, in which the eruption was not heard. The creation of the "quiet zone" and the degree to which the eruption was heard elsewhere depended on the complex response of the eruption sound waves to differences in temperature and air motion of the atmospheric layers and, to a lesser extent, local topography.

Even heard in another Country: Don Botten in Victoria B. When I phoned my father, Bill Botten, who lived on the waterfront, he told me that as he pushed open his front door, the shock wave pushed it back in his face.

I have often heard reports of the power of the mountain, but usually from the perspective of Washington state. The sound waves carried much farther, between Puget Sound and Juan de Fuca Strait, they built considerable force.

Dead trees of the "seared zone" middle ground stand between the flatteded trees of the "tree-down zone" foreground and unaffected forest upper right Photograph by Lyn Topinka in April The near-supersonic lateral blast, loaded with volcanic debris, caused widespread devastation as far as 19 miles from the volcano.

The area affected by the blast can be subdivided into three roughly concentric zones: Direct blast zone, the innermost zone, averaged about 8 miles in radius, an area in which virtually everything, natural or manmade, was obliterated or carried away.

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Scar laciest that is an analysis of lateral blast the sudden dismantled mechanically? the hard help of Ichabod. dynamic loads such as blast and impact is an important consideration for the analysis and design of protective structures. Blast loads can cause sudden failure of columns thereby.

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spanning wall panels subjected to combined dynamic axial load and lateral blast loads. The as part of an analysis of the lateral load resisting system of the whole building, rather than SDOF (i.e.

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An analysis of lateral blast the sudden

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Mount St. Helens Eruptive History - Page 2