A study investigated the efficacy of brief cognitive-behavioral psychoeducation as a preventive intervention for depression and anxiety. At 8-week follow-up, symptoms were lower among the intervention group vs the control group. In a study of children and adolescents, an education-based prevention program for social anxiety was shown to reduce social anxiety in the total sample. A study published in Behaviour Research and Therapy in investigated the effects of a 6-week cognitive behavioral preventive intervention that targeted repetitive negative thinking worry and rumination in adolescents and young adults.
Specific phobias Definition Specific phobia is a type of disorder in which the affected individual displays a marked and enduring fear of specific situations or objects. Individuals with specific phobias experience extreme fear as soon as they encounter a defined situation or object, a phobic stimulus.
For example, an individual with a specific phobia of dogs will become anxious when coerced to confront a dog. The specific phobia triggers a lot of distress or significantly impairs an affected individual.
Formerly, specific phobia was known as simple phobia.
|Phobia - Wikipedia||Specific phobias Definition Specific phobia is a type of disorder in which the affected individual displays a marked and enduring fear of specific situations or objects. Individuals with specific phobias experience extreme fear as soon as they encounter a defined situation or object, a phobic stimulus.|
|Specific phobias||This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.|
|References||Abstract Objective The study of human anxiety disorders has benefited greatly from functional neuroimaging approaches.|
In the last few years, mental health professionals have paid more attention to specific phobias. Description Specific phobia has a unique position among the anxiety disorders in that individuals with this disorder do not experience pervasive anxiety nor do they seek treatment as readily as individuals with other anxiety disorders.
Unlike individuals with other anxiety disorders, the fear of individuals with specific phobias is limited to defined situations or objects.
Individuals with specific phobias experience impairment or a significant amount of anguish. They may lead restricted lifestyles depending upon the phobia type.
Adults and adolescents with specific phobias recognize that their fear is unreasonable. Children, on the other hand, may not recognize that their fear of the phobic stimulus is unreasonable or extreme.
The types of specific phobias include situational, object, and other.
Examples include situations such as flying, enclosed places, tunnels, driving, bridges, elevators, or public transportation. Object types include animal, natural environment, and blood-injection-injury types. Researchers have found that the frequency of type for adults in clinical settings, from least to most frequent, is: The most common phobias for community samples, however, include phobias of heights, mice, spiders, and insects.
Causes and symptoms Causes The development of a specific phobia may be determined by a variety of factors. Behavioral, cognitive, and social theories of learning and conditioning, psychodynamic models such as the psychoanalytic theory of Freud, physiological studies of the brainfamily background and genetic predisposition, variations in sociocultural themes, and theories on trauma can influence the development of specific phobia disorder.
Some theorists propose that biological researchers have ignored specific phobias because pharmacological treatment is not the treatment of choice for this disorder. As ofresearch on phobias focuses on information-processing, learning, and conditioning themes. Learning to experience fear is the core of a conditioning perspective.
Informational and instructional factors can result in the formation of fears. For example, an individual who frequently hears of plane crashes in the news may develop a specific phobia of flying.
Research shows that individuals with specific phobias pay more attention to information about danger than do individuals who do not have specific phobias.
Vicarious acquisition occurs when an individual witnesses a traumatic event or sees another individual behave with fear when confronting a phobic stimulus. Direct conditioning occurs when an individual is frightened by a phobic stimulus.
A major determinant of specific phobias is conditioning. Association and avoidance are types of conditioning.Anxiety disorders affect an estimated % of US adults and % of adolescents age 13 to 18 each year. 1,2 Between and , there was a % increase in the burden of disease among these. Am J Psychiatry , October FUNCTIONAL NEUROIMAGING OF ANXIETY arteensevilla.com TABLE 1.
Summary of the Included Studies for the Meta-Analysis of Functional Neuroimaging Studies in PTSD, Social Anx-. SIGMUND FREUD'S ANALYSIS OF A PHOBIA () Introduction Ah, here we are.
The infamous case of Sigmund Freud, Little Hans and the Oedipus complex. This study was actually a very unique analysis so stop smirking and read on. Freud is probably one of the most well-known psychologists in the world. He's one of those names. Specific phobia is a prevalent psychiatric disorder, with lifetime prevalence as high as %.
Although many of those with specific phobia do not present for treatment, it is a remarkably impairing condition. Studies were selected by searching PubMed and reference lists for PET or fMRI studies of anxiety disorders (PTSD, social anxiety disorder, specific phobia, OCD, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic disorder) or fear conditioning in healthy volunteers available until September Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is frequently used for various adult anxiety disorders, but there has been no systematic review of randomized placebo-controlled trials.
The present study meta-analytically reviewed the efficacy of CBT versus placebo for adult anxiety disorders. We conducted a.