Click for larger view The above photograph shows Ron London and Bill Mottern setting up their low power x-ray machine, the same device that was at least in part responsible for the seizing of all of STURP's equipment by Italian customs upon its arrival in Italy back in The wooden crate that housed the x-ray machine had a radiation sticker on the outside, and that apparently raised enough concern to cause the customs officials to seize everything and refuse to release it upon our arrival. We arrived a week prior to the scheduled start of our examination while the Shroud was still on public display in order to unpack, set up and calibrate all our instruments and equipment so we would be fully prepared when the Shroud was brought to us.
Terminology[ edit ] A woman reading an e-book on an e-reader. E-books are also referred to as "ebooks", "eBooks", "Ebooks", "e-Books", "e-journals", "e-editions" or as "digital books". The devices that are designed specifically for reading e-books are called "e-readers", "ebook device" or "eReaders".
History[ edit ] The Readies [ edit ] Some trace the idea of an e-reader that would enable a reader to view books on a screen to a manifesto by Bob Brownwritten after watching his first " talkie " movie with sound.
He titled it The Readies, playing off the idea of the "talkie". Later e-readers never followed a model at all like Brown's. Nevertheless, Brown predicted the miniaturization and portability of e-readers. In an article, Jennifer Schuessler writes, "The machine, Brown argued, would allow readers to adjust the type size, avoid paper cuts and save trees, all while hastening the day when words could be 'recorded directly on the palpitating ether.
Schuessler relates it to a DJ spinning bits of old songs to create a beat or an entirely new song as opposed to just a remix of a familiar song. Some notable candidates include the following: Her Book report on how soon can was to create a device which would decrease the number of books that her pupils carried to school.
The final device would include audio recordings, a magnifying glass, a calculator and an electric light for night reading. However, this work is sometimes omitted; perhaps because the digitized text was a means for studying written texts and developing linguistic concordances, rather than as a published edition in its own right.
All these systems also provided extensive hyperlinkinggraphics, and other capabilities. Van Dam is generally thought to have coined the term "electronic book",   and it was established enough to use in an article title by Thus in the Preface to Person and Object he writes "The book would not have been completed without the epoch-making File Retrieval and Editing System Hart [ edit ] Despite the extensive earlier history, several publications report Michael S.
Hart as the inventor of the e-book. Seeking a worthy use of this resource, he created his first electronic document by typing the United States Declaration of Independence into a computer in plain text. Early implementations[ edit ] After Hart first adapted the Declaration of Independence into an electronic document inProject Gutenberg was launched to create electronic copies of more texts - especially books.
Detailed specifications were completed in FY 82, and prototype development began with Texas Instruments that same year. Four prototypes were produced and delivered for testing in Tests were completed in Harkins and Stephen H. InSony launched the Data Discmanan electronic book reader that could read e-books that were stored on CDs.
One of the electronic publications that could be played on the Data Discman was called The Library of the Future. The scope of the subject matter of these e-books included technical manuals for hardware, manufacturing techniques, and other subjects. Comparison of e-book formats Reading an e-book on public transit As e-book formats emerged and proliferated,[ citation needed ] some garnered support from major software companies, such as Adobe with its PDF format that was introduced in Different e-reader devices followed different formats, most of them accepting books in only one or a few formats, thereby fragmenting the e-book market even more.
Due to the exclusiveness and limited readerships of e-books, the fractured market of independent publishers and specialty authors lacked consensus regarding a standard for packaging and selling e-books.
In the late s, a consortium formed to develop the Open eBook format as a way for authors and publishers to provide a single source-document which many book-reading software and hardware platforms could handle. Focused on portability, Open eBook as defined required subsets of XHTML and CSS ; a set of multimedia formats others could be used, but there must also be a fallback in one of the required formatsand an XML schema for a "manifest", to list the components of a given e-book, identify a table of contents, cover art, and so on.
Google Books has converted many public domain works to this open format. Unofficial and occasionally unauthorized catalogs of books became available on the web, and sites devoted to e-books began disseminating information about e-books to the public. Consumer e-book publishing market are controlled by the "Big Five".
The "Big Five" publishers include: Inlibraries began offering free downloadable popular fiction and non-fiction e-books to the public, launching an E-book lending model that worked much more successfully for public libraries.
In earlyNLM started PubMed Centralwhich provides full-text e-book versions of many medical journal articles and books, through cooperation with scholars and publishers in the field. Pubmed Central now provides archiving and access to over 4. However, some publishers and authors have not endorsed the concept of electronic publishingciting issues with user demand, copyright piracy and challenges with proprietary devices and systems.
This survey found significant barriers to conducting interlibrary loan for e-books. This means the library does not own the electronic text but that they can circulate it either for a certain period of time or for a certain number of check outs, or both.
When a library purchases an e-book license, the cost is at least three times what it would be for a personal consumer. However, some studies have found the opposite effect for example, Hilton and Wikey  Archival storage[ edit ] The Internet Archive and Open Library offer more than six million fully accessible public domain e-books.Two years ago, the first Author Earnings report revealed the growing market share of self-published ebooks.
With data on hundreds of thousands of titles, it was suddenly possible to measure the relative sales and earnings power of ebooks according to publishing path. Scholastic has been delivering literacy resources for kids and outstanding children's books to schools, teachers, and families for more than 90 years.
How to Write a Book Report.
Writing a book report can be a lot of fun. It gives you a chance to read a new book and then tell your teacher and friends what you thought about it. View the above video regarding our upcoming Exotic Car Racing Giveaway! To View the Panache Report 30 second commercial, click on the above images.
‘Soon’ is the surprise (at least it was to me!) fifth book in Australian author Morris Gleitzman’s incredible ‘Once’ series of books for younger readers though, as Gleitzman says in a letter to readers at the end, he prefers to think of these as a ‘family of books’ rather than a series, because they can be read out of order or stand-alone/5.
(Third edition) by Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig.
The leading textbook in Artificial Intelligence. Used in over universities in over countries. The 22nd most cited. computer science publication on Citeseer (and 4th most cited publication of this century).