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Investor Johann Faust gains control of print business First known color business writing pictures for 1st, a Psalter a collection of Psalms for devotional use by Faust.
In the midth century Johannes Gutenberg invented a mechanical way of making books. This was the first example of mass book production. Before the invention of printing, multiple copies of a manuscript had to be made by hand, a laborious task that could take many years. Later books were produced by and for the Church using the process of wood engraving.
This required the craftsman to cut away the background, leaving the area to be printed raised. This process applied to both text and illustrations and was extremely time-consuming.
When a page was complete, often comprising a number of blocks joined together, it would be inked and a sheet of paper was then pressed over it for an imprint. The susceptibility of wood to the elements gave such blocks a limited lifespan. In the Far East, movable type and printing presses were known but did not replace printing from individually carved wooden blocks, from movable clay type, processes much more efficient than hand copying.
Since there are thousands of Chinese characters, the benefit of the technique is not as obvious as in European languages. In China, there were no texts similar to the Bible which could guarantee a printer return on the high capital investment of a printing press, and so the primary form of printing was wood block printing which was more suited for short runs of texts for which the return was uncertain It is not clear whether Gutenberg knew of these existing techniques or invented them independently, though the former is considered unlikely because of the substantial differences in technique.
Europeans use xylography art of engraving on wood, block printing to produce books and used by European textile makers to print patterns on fabric. Gutenberg began experimenting with metal typography letterpress printing after he had moved from his native town of Mainz to Strassburg around Knowing that wood-block type involved a great deal of time and expense to reproduce, because it had to be hand carved, Gutenberg concluded that metal type could be reproduced much more quickly once a single mold had been fashioned.
When Johannes Gutenberg began building his press inhe was unlikely to have realised that he was giving birth to an art form which would take center stage in the social and industrial revolutions which followed. He was German, his press was wooden, and the most important aspect of his invention was that it was the first form of printing to use movable type.
His initial efforts enabled him in to mass-produce indulgences -- printed slips of paper sold by the Catholic Church to remit temporal punishments in purgatory for sins committed in this life, for those wealthy enough to afford indulgences.
Although Laurence Koster Coster of Haarlem, Netherlands also laid claim to the invention, scholars have generally accepted Gutenberg as the father of modern printing. Gutenberg left Strasburg, presumably about He seems to have perfected at enormous expense his invention shortly afterwards, as is shown by the oldest specimens of printing that have come down to us, the "Poem of the Last Judgment", and the "Calendar for ".
The fact that Arnolt Gelthuss, a relative of Gutenberg, lent him money in the year at Mainz points to the same conclusion. Legal documents indicate that Gutenberg probably began printing the Bible around It was in this year that Gutenberg entered into a partnership with Johann Fust who lent him money to finance the production of a Bible.
Gutenberg certainly introduced efficient methods into book production, leading to a boom in the production of texts in Europe -- in large part, owing to the popularity of the Gutenberg Bibles, the first mass-produced work, starting in Even so, Gutenberg was a poor businessman, and made little money from his printing system.
The earliest dated specimens of printing by Gutenberg are papal indulgences notes given to Christians by the Pope, pardoning their sins issued in Mainz in InGutenberg demonstrated the power of the printing press by selling copies of a two-volume Bible for a price that was the equivalent of approximately three years' wages for an average clerk, but it was significantly cheaper than a handwritten Bible that could take a single monk 20 years to transcribe.
Injust as the project was nearing completion Johann Fust sued Gutenberg, taking possession of his printing equipment and the almost completed edition of the Bible. Fust subsequently entered into partnership with Peter Schoffer, who had been Gutenberg's assistant, and the project was finally completed in whereupon Fust undertook the task of marketing the bible.
Fust first attempted to sell the Bibles as manuscripts but once potential purchasers observed the uniformity of the volumes, he had to reveal the means by which they were produced.
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The mortgage covered the copious stock of type which had evidently been already prepared for the edition of the Psalter, which was printed by Fust and Schoffer in August, This included new type in two sizes, as well as the world-famous initial letters with their ingenious contrivance for two-color printing.
In Fust and Schoffer published a large Psalter, known as the Mainz Psalter, which featured printed red and blue intitials along with the black text. There is some debate about how these coloured letters were printed.
They were either printed from two part metal blocks that were inked separately, re-assembled and then printed with the text, or they were stamped on after the main text was printed.Find and save ideas about Four square writing on Pinterest.
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