Issue areas and projects[ edit ] Agrochemicals and human health[ edit ] EWG has created a cosmetics database which indexes and scores products based on EWA's views of their ingredients. Their Guide to Pesticides in Produce lists 44 fruits and vegetables based on the number of pesticides that they were found to contain according to United States Department of Agriculture data.
Has international arbitration lived up to the lofty ambitions Community enviromental issue its intellectual creators? How relevant is it for present and future intra-Asian disputes, for example?
There had to be a way to sort out disputes other than violence, and arbitration was the answer. It long pre-dated state courts which are a relatively new phenomena in the scheme of things.
Roebuuck showed the importance of arbitration in England in the 17th Century as well as its importance in France in his volume The Charitable Arbitrator. Current work on the 18th Century will reveal that arbitration was commonplace to deal with all sorts of disputes and that newspapers of the day are replete with references to current arbitrations.
Confidentiality must have come late to the party! Given the patchy state of many judiciaries around the world, arbitration has rightly become the normal method of resolving most international commercial disputes. It may have become more of a profession in its own right than the people you mentioned might have liked, but this is in part because arbitration is now being conducted as a mirror image of state court litigation and has lost some of its original aura.
But on the whole the system works well. That is not to say that improvements are not necessary but they will come because consumers will demand them AMC: I am somewhat surprised that by now we have not introduced the rule that no arbitrator can be of the same nationality as any of the parties.
This rule applies to the chair and I fail to see why it should not apply to the whole tribunal, unless of course the parties agree otherwise. I would like to see a situation arrived at where the party appointed arbitrators did not know which party nominated them.
This should not be hard to achieve in institutional arbitrations but I accept is harder in ad hoc cases.
As to impartiality generally it is the chair which is crucial in the majority of cases. Judges are human too and have prejudices, patent or latent. Do you agree with his view? I have great admiration for David with whom I have worked several times, but I feel that he is only dealing with one side of the problem.
Of course arbitrators should not delay unnecessarily in delivering awards. In most cases it is not appropriate to count from the end of the hearing until the date of the award.
Sometimes tribunals have to wait two to three months for detailed closing submissions and possibly reply submissions too. In some cases, both sides then insist on an oral hearing to articulate their written closings.
Sometimes the tribunal will need to raise specific points with the parties which have not been adequately dealt with to date. All this takes time as does scrutiny where applicable. Another cause of delay is the consequence of the kitchen sink approach. No triage is practised with the result that the tribunal has to deal with far too many points and this takes time.
Then there is the issue of experts.
This all takes time. What if one counsel has employed guerilla tactics throughout the case? This will make the award harder to write. Who knows about this apart from the parties themselves.
Thus looking at the raw data — the start and end date — can and usually does leave a false impression. What are their obligations to each other and to the tribunal? I would need to see parties agree to carry out the arbitration with cooperation and courtesy to each other and to the tribunal.When I mention what I do (come up with ways to estimate the value of environmental goods and services), I sometimes get a response like this: It really is irritating that some people need to use economic measures to value our environment.
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The Department of Environmental Services (DES) is making Arlington County a vibrant, accessible and sustainable community. Issue areas and projects Agrochemicals and human health. EWG has created a cosmetics database which indexes and scores products based on EWA's views of their ingredients.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine (OEM) is an international peer reviewed journal covering current developments in occupational and environmental health worldwide.