Pollutants can also be defined by their zones of influence, both horizontally and vertically. Horizontal zone The horizontal zone refers to the area that is damaged by a pollutant. Local pollutants cause damage near the emission source.
Sergey Milovidov Modern mining is an industry that involves the exploration for and removal of minerals from the earth, economically and with minimum damage to the environment. Mining is important because minerals are major sources of energy as well as materials such as fertilizers and steel.
Mining is necessary for nations to have adequate and dependable supplies of minerals and materials to meet their economic and defense needs at acceptable Disadvantages of soil pollution, energy, and economic costs. Some of the nonfuel minerals mined, such as stone, which is a nonmetallic or industrial mineral, can be used directly from the earth.
Metallic minerals, which are also nonfuel minerals, conversely, are usually combined in nature with other materials as ores. These ores must be treated, generally with chemicals or heat to produce the metal of interest.
Most bauxite ore, for example, is converted to aluminum oxide, which is used to make aluminum metal via heat and additives. Fuel minerals, such as coal and uranium, must also be processed using chemicals and other treatments to produce the quality of fuel desired.
There are significant differences in the mining techniques and environmental effects of mining metallic, industrial, and fuel minerals.
The discussion here will mostly concentrate on metallic minerals. Mining is a global industry, and not every country has high-grade, large, exceptionally profitable mineral deposits, and the transportation infrastructure to get the mined products to market economically.
Some of the factors affecting global mining are environmental regulations, fuel costs, labor costs, access to land believed to contain valuable ore, diminishing ore grades requiring the mining of more Aerial view of shoreline, showing a stream polluted with waste water runoff from strip mining flowing into the Ohio River.
Mining Life Cycle Minerals are a nonrenewable resource, and because of this, the life of mines is finite, and mining represents a temporary use of the land. The mining life cycle during this temporary use of the land can be divided into the following stages: Exploration is the work involved in determining the location, size, shape, position, and value of an ore body using prospecting methods, geologic mapping and field investigations, remote sensing aerial and satellite-borne sensor systems that detect ore-bearing rocksdrilling, and other methods.
Building access roads to a drilling site is one example of an exploration activity that can cause environmental damage.
The development of a mine consists of several principal activities: Preparation could cause environmental damage by excavation of the deposit to remove overburden surface material above the ore deposit that is devoid of ore minerals prior to mining.
Extraction is the removal of ore from the ground on a large scale by one or more of three principal methods: After the ore is removed from the ground, it is crushed so that the valuable mineral in the ore can be separated from the waste material and concentrated by flotation a process that separates finely ground minerals from one another by causing some to float in a froth and others to sinkgravity, magnetism, or other methods, usually at the mine site, to prepare it for further stages of processing.
The production of large amounts of waste material often very acidic and particulate emission have led to major environmental and health concerns with ore extraction and concentration.
Additional processing separates the desired metal from the mineral concentrate.
The closure of a mine refers to cessation of mining at that site. It involves completing a reclamation plan and ensures the safety of areas affected by the operation, for instance, by sealing the entrance to an abandoned mine.
Planning for closure is often required to be ongoing throughout the life cycle of the mine and not left to be addressed at the end of operations. The Surface Mining and Control Act of states that reclamation must "restore the land affected to a condition capable of supporting the uses which it was capable of supporting prior to any mining, or higher or better uses.
Many closed or abandoned mines have been identified by federal and state governments and are being reclaimed by both industry and government.
Environmental Impacts The environmental responsibility of mining operations is protection of the air, land, and water. Mineral resources were developed in the United States for nearly two centuries with few environmental controls.
This is largely attributed to the fact that environmental impact was not understood or appreciated as it is today. In addition, the technology available during this period was not always able to prevent or control environmental damage.
All methods of mining affect air quality. Particulate matter is released in surface mining when overburden is stripped from the site and stored or returned to the pit.
When the soil is removed, vegetation is also removed, exposing the soil to the weather, causing particulates to become airborne through wind erosion and road traffic.
Particulate matter can be composed of such noxious materials as arsenic, cadmium, and lead. In general, particulates affect human health adversely by contributing to illnesses relating to the respiratory tract, such as emphysema, but they also can be ingested or absorbed into the skin.
Mining can cause physical disturbances to the landscape, creating eyesores such as waste-rock piles and open pits. Such disturbances may contribute to the decline of wildlife and plant species in an area. In addition, it is possible that many of the premining surface features cannot be replaced after mining ceases.
Mine subsidence ground movements of the earth's surface due to the collapse of overlying strata into voids created by underground mining can cause damage to buildings and roads. Between andnearly five hundred subsidence collapse features attributed to abandoned underground metal mines were identified in the vicinity of Galena, Kansas, where the mining of lead ores took place from to The entire area was reclaimed in and Water-pollution problems caused by mining include acid mine drainage, metal contamination, and increased sediment levels in streams.
Sources can include active or abandoned surface and underground mines, processing plants, waste-disposal areas, haulage roads, or tailings ponds. Sediments, typically from increased soil erosion, cause siltation or the smothering of streambeds.Sep 03, · Fracking explained in five minutes.
Fracking is a controversial topic. On the one side the gas drilling companies, on the other citizen opposed to this drilling method.
Radon: Truths and myths. Prelude.
A large portion of the general population is under the misconception that the frequently published risks associated with radon are well accepted scientific facts.
Abstract. For many centuries soil has become contaminated by human activities, but only recently has soil pollution was considered a threat for man and environment based on increasing knowledge about the effects pollutants may have and on ways to detect them.
Federal Review of Nuclear Power. Despite thirty years of development and billions of dollars in subsidies, the Canadian nuclear industry is floundering.
According to the draft report of an internal government review, it is doubtful "whether the nuclear industry will survive the 's" [ p]Domestic markets for CANDU reactors have evaporated (See Chart I). The environmental impact of mining includes erosion, formation of sinkholes, loss of biodiversity, and contamination of soil, groundwater, and surface water by chemicals from mining processes.
Besides creating environmental damage, the contamination resulting from leakage of chemicals also affects the health of the local population.
. Max Whitmore is a personal trainer with more than three years experience in individual and group fitness. Whitmore has a Bachelor of Arts in English literature from the University of Cincinnati, fitness certifications and dietetics training from Cincinnati State Technical and Community College.