Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors: For page numbers consisting of more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to the reader, e.
Some style guides, such as the Chicago Manual of Styleare quite flexible and cover both parenthetical and note citation systems. These may be referred to as citation formats as well as citation styles. A number of organizations have created styles to fit their needs; consequently, a number of different guides exist.
Individual publishers often have their own in-house variations as well, and some works are so long-established as to have their own citation methods too: Stephanus pagination for Plato ; Bekker numbers for Aristotle ; citing the Bible by book, chapter and verse; or Shakespeare notation by play.
It is most widely used in history and economics as well as some social sciences.
The closely related Turabian style—which derives from it—is for student references, and is distinguished from the CMOS by omission of quotation marks in reference lists, and mandatory access date citation. The Columbia Style was created by Janice R. Walker and Todd Taylor to give detailed guidelines for citing internet sources.
Columbia Style offers models for both the humanities and the sciences. Includes sources in electronic format. Used by genealogists and historians. Parenthetical referencing is recommended by both the British Standards Institution and the Modern Language Association.
Harvard referencing involves a short author-date reference, e. MLA style was developed by the Modern Language Association and is most often used in the arts and the humanitiesparticularly in English studiesother literary studiesincluding comparative literature and literary criticism in languages other than English " foreign languages "and some interdisciplinary studies, such as cultural studiesdrama and theatrefilmand other mediaincluding television.
This style of citations and bibliographical format uses parenthetical referencing with author-page Smith or author-[short] title-page Smith, Contingencies 42 in the case of more than one work by the same author within parentheses in the text, keyed to an alphabetical list of sources on a "Works Cited" page at the end of the paper, as well as notes footnotes or endnotes.
It is available for sale both in the UK and in the United States. It is similar to MLA stylebut has some differences.
For example, MHRA style uses footnotes that reference a citation fully while also providing a bibliography. Some readers find it advantageous that the footnotes provide full citations, instead of shortened references, so that they do not need to consult the bibliography while reading for the rest of the publication details.
In these areas, the term "footnote" is actually used as a synonym for "reference", and care must be taken by editors and typesetters to ensure that they understand how the term is being used by their authors.
Legal citation The Bluebook is a citation system traditionally used in American academic legal writing, and the Bluebook or similar systems derived from it are used by many courts. Inline citations allow readers to quickly determine the strength of a source based on, for example, the court a case was decided in and the year it was decided.
Sciences, mathematics, engineering, physiology, and medicine[ edit ] The American Chemical Society style, or ACS styleis often used in Chemistry and some of the physical sciences. In ACS style references are numbered in the text and in the reference list, and numbers are repeated throughout the text as needed.
In the style of the American Institute of Physics AIP stylereferences are also numbered in the text and in the reference list, with numbers repeated throughout the text as needed. Brackets with author's initials and year are inserted in the text and at the beginning of the reference.This is an astute, and often sophisticated, essay which makes its arguments cogently.
One of its strengths is that you are making excellent use of citation both to support your points but also to move your argument along (for example, see double ticks on pp).
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Feb 13, · How to Write a Bibliography. When you write a paper or a book, it's important to include a bibliography. You can also use a citation manager, like Zotero or RefWorks, to automatically generate a bibliography in your preferred style.
Thanks! Yes No. Not Helpful 5 Helpful 2. Question. How do I write a bibliography on someone 86%(23). Writing - How to Write a Bibliography - Examples in MLA Style.
How do I reference and in-text cite? APA 6th (Harvard) style is the main referencing style in use at the University. Students studying Law subjects will use OSCOLA and if .
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