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Pacific decadal oscillation to The ocean and atmosphere can work together to spontaneously generate internal climate variability that can persist for years to decades at a time.
For example, alterations to ocean processes such as thermohaline circulation play a key role in redistributing heat in the world's oceans. Due to the long timescales of this circulation, ocean temperature at depth is still adjusting to effects of the Little Ice Age  which occurred between the and s.
A schematic of modern thermohaline circulation. Tens of millions of years ago, continental-plate movement formed a land-free gap around Antarctica, allowing the formation of the ACCwhich keeps warm waters away from Antarctica.
Life Life affects climate through its role in the carbon and water cycles and through such mechanisms as albedoevapotranspirationcloud formationand weathering. Variations in CO2temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the lastyears Human influences Main article: Global warming In the context of climate variation, anthropogenic factors are human activities which affect the climate.
The scientific consensus on climate change is "that climate is changing and that these changes are in large part caused by human activities",  and it "is largely irreversible". While much remains to be learned, the core phenomenon, scientific questions, and hypotheses have been examined thoroughly and have stood firm in the face of serious scientific debate and careful evaluation of alternative explanations.
This is due to emissions from fossil fuel combustion, followed by aerosols particulate matter in the atmosphereand the CO2 released by cement manufacture. Milankovitch cycles Slight variations in Earth's motion lead to changes in the seasonal distribution of sunlight reaching the Earth's surface and how it is distributed across the globe.
There is very little change to the area-averaged annually averaged sunshine; but there can be strong changes in the geographical and seasonal distribution. The three types of kinematic change are variations in Earth's eccentricitychanges in the tilt angle of Earth's axis of rotationand precession of Earth's axis.
Combined together, these produce Milankovitch cycles which affect climate and are notable for their correlation to glacial and interglacial periods their correlation with the advance and retreat of the Sahara and for their appearance in the stratigraphic record.
Upon seawater temperature change, the solubility of CO2 in the oceans changed, as well as other factors affecting air-sea CO2 exchange.
The period of extraordinarily few sunspots in the late 17th century was the Maunder minimum. The Sun is the predominant source of energy input to the Earth.
Other sources include geothermal energy from the Earth's core, tidal energy from the Moon and heat from the decay of radioactive compounds. Both long- and short-term variations in solar intensity are known to affect global climate. However, there is evidence for the presence of water on the early Earth, in the Hadean   and Archean   eons, leading to what is known as the faint young Sun paradox.
The Great Oxygenation Event —oxygenation of the atmosphere around 2. Over the next five billion years from the present, the Sun's ultimate death as it becomes a red giant and then a white dwarf will have large effects on climate, with the red giant phase possibly ending any life on Earth that survives until that time.
Values since not shown. Solar output varies on shorter time scales, including the year solar cycle  and longer-term modulations.
The cyclical nature of the Sun's energy output is not yet fully understood; it differs from the very slow change that is happening within the Sun as it ages and evolves.
Some studies point toward solar radiation increases from cyclical sunspot activity affecting global warming, and climate may be influenced by the sum of all effects solar variation, anthropogenic radiative forcingsetc.Each farm is different.
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Climate change affects the social and environmental determinants of health – clean air, safe drinking water, sufficient food and secure shelter.
Between and , climate change is expected to cause approximately additional deaths per year, from malnutrition, malaria, diarrhoea and. arteensevilla.com Climate Policy Initiative (CPI) produces the most comprehensive inventory of climate change investment available.
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Jun 01, · Mr. Trump’s decision to abandon the agreement for environmental action signed by nations is a remarkable rebuke to heads of state, climate .