The Challenger disaster is held as a case study of engineering ethics. Engineers have obligations to the public, their clients, employers, and the profession. Many engineering societies have established codes of practice and codes of ethics to guide members and inform the public at large. Each engineering discipline and professional society maintains a code of ethics, which the members pledge to uphold.
The creative application of scientific principles to design or develop structures, machines, apparatus, or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them singly or in combination; or to construct or operate the same with full cognizance of their design; or to forecast their behavior under specific operating conditions; all as respects an intended function, economics of operation and safety to life and property.
History of engineering Relief map of the Citadel of Lilledesigned in by Vaubanthe foremost military engineer of his age.
Engineering has existed since ancient times, when humans devised inventions such as the wedge, lever, wheel and pulley. The term engineering is derived from the word engineer, which itself dates back to when an engine'er literally, one who operates an engine referred to "a constructor of military engines.
Notable examples of the obsolete usage which have survived to the present day are military engineering corps, e. Army Corps of Engineers.
The word "engine" itself is of even older origin, ultimately deriving from the Latin ingenium c. Ancient era[ edit ] The Ancient Romans built aqueducts to bring a steady supply of clean and fresh water to cities and towns in the empire.
Other monuments, no longer standing, such as the Hanging Gardens of Babylonand the Pharos of Alexandria were important engineering achievements of their time and were considered among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The earliest civil engineer known by name is Imhotep.
The Antikythera mechanismthe first known mechanical computer  and the mechanical inventions of Archimedes are examples of early mechanical engineering.
Some of Archimedes' inventions as well as the Antikythera mechanism required sophisticated knowledge of differential gearing or epicyclic gearingtwo key principles in machine theory that helped design the gear trains of the Industrial Revolution, and are still widely used today in diverse fields such as robotics and automotive engineering.
In the Middle Ages, the trebuchet was developed. Renaissance era[ edit ] A water-powered mine hoist used for raising ore, ca. Aside from these professions, universities were not believed to have had much practical significance to technology. De re metallica was the standard chemistry reference for the next years.
Similarly, in addition to military and civil engineering, the fields then known as the mechanic arts became incorporated into engineering. Canal building was an important engineering work during the early phases of the Industrial Revolution.
He was an English civil engineer responsible for the design of bridgescanalsharboursand lighthouses. He was also a capable mechanical engineer and an eminent physicist.
Using a model water wheel, Smeaton conducted experiments for seven years, determining ways to increase efficiency. Smeaton designed the third Eddystone Lighthouse —59 where he pioneered the use of ' hydraulic lime ' a form of mortar which will set under water and developed a technique involving dovetailed blocks of granite in the building of the lighthouse.
He is important in the history, rediscovery of, and development of modern cementbecause he identified the compositional requirements needed to obtain "hydraulicity" in lime; work which led ultimately to the invention of Portland cement.
Applied science lead to the development of the steam engine. The sequence of events began with the invention the barometer and the measurement of atmospheric pressure by Evangelista Torricelli indemonstration of the force of atmospheric pressure by Otto von Guericke using the Magdeburg hemispheres inlaboratory experiments by Denis Papinwho built experimental model steam engines and demonstrated the use of a piston, which he published in Edward Somerset, 2nd Marquess of Worcester published a book of inventions containing a method for raising waters similar to a coffee percolator.
Samuel Morlanda mathematician and inventor who worked on pumps, left notes at the Vauxhall Ordinance Office on a steam pump design that Thomas Savery read.Role plays help your students overcome the stage fright they experience when using English.
The themes can sometimes seem mundane, though. The themes can sometimes seem mundane, though. You can shake up your role play activities by putting your students in bizarre situations, offering them weird personalities to portray and planting seeds of.
English plays an important role in students life. There is great consumption of English in present-day. So, the use of English should be continued along with Hindi and other regional languages.
Defining roles: CTO and/or VP Engineering That role is a VP of Engineering. Defining the VP of Engineering A VP Engineering is ideally a great manager and a great team builder. He or she will. About this course: Welcome to English for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, a course created by the University of Pennsylvania, and funded by the U.S.
Department of State Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of English Language arteensevilla.com enroll in this course for free, click on “Enroll now” and then select "Full Course. Nov 27, · Role of Drivers and Stubs in Unit Testing: Software Engineering Hindi English Lectures.
English department, Walchand college of Engineering, Sangli., Shivaji University Kolhapur, India ABSTRACT Communication is the life blood of all the organizations.