Oral argument and Closing argument Legal arguments are spoken presentations to a judge or appellate court by a lawyer, or parties when representing themselves of the legal reasons why they should prevail. Oral argument at the appellate level accompanies written briefs, which also advance the argument of each party in the legal dispute. A closing argument, or summation, is the concluding statement of each party's counsel reiterating the important arguments for the trier of fact, often the jury, in a court case. A closing argument occurs after the presentation of evidence.
These give useful categories by which an argument may be analyzed. Claim A claim is a statement that you are asking the other person to accept. This includes information you are asking them to accept as true or actions you want them to accept and enact. You should use a hearing aid.
Many people start with a claim, but then find that it is challenged. If you just ask me to do something, I will not simply agree with what you want. I will ask why I should agree with you. I will ask you to prove your claim.
This is where grounds become important. Grounds The grounds or data is the basis of real persuasion and is made up of data and hard facts, plus the reasoning behind the claim.
Grounds may also include proof of expertise and the basic premises on which the rest of the argument is built. We assume what we measure is true, but there may be problems in this measurement, ranging from a faulty measurement instrument to biased sampling.
It is critical to the argument that the grounds are not challenged because, if they are, they may become a claim, which you will need to prove with even deeper information and further argument. Information is usually a very powerful element of persuasion, although it does affect people differently.
Those who are dogmatic, logical or rational will more likely to be persuaded by factual data. Those who argue emotionally and who are highly invested in their own position will challenge it or otherwise try to ignore it.
It is often a useful test to give something factual to the other person that disproves their argument, and watch how they handle it. Some will accept it without question. Some will dismiss it out of hand. Others will dig deeper, requiring more explanation. This is where the warrant comes into its own.
Warrant A warrant links data and other grounds to a claim, legitimizing the claim by showing the grounds to be relevant. The warrant may be explicit or unspoken and implicit.
A hearing aid helps most people to hear better. The warrant may be simple and it may also be a longer argument, with additional sub-elements including those described below.
Warrants may be based on logos, ethos or pathosor values that are assumed to be shared with the listener. In many arguments, warrants are often implicit and hence unstated. This gives space for the other person to question and expose the warrant, perhaps to show it is weak or unfounded.
Backing The backing or support for an argument gives additional support to the warrant by answering different questions. Hearing aids are available locally.
Qualifier The qualifier or modal qualifier indicates the strength of the leap from the data to the warrant and may limit how universally the claim applies.
Arguments may hence range from strong assertions to generally quite floppy with vague and often rather uncertain kinds of statement. Hearing aids help most people.The Toulmin Model of Argumentation David Wright, Furman University English Department (printable version here)One method of constructing or analyzing a persuasive argument is the Toulmin model, named for its creator, British rhetorician Stephen Toulmin.
The Toulmin Model, a dynamic foundation of structured analysis commonly used to analyze any text in which an argumentative statement develops through the essential elements which goes to define the Toulmin process.
The Phenomenon Of Drug Addiction - Without noticing, those people create and increase a self-destructive compulsive behavior. Personality of drug addicts is be based on different cycles and types of addiction, such as shoplifting, bets, pornography, alcohol, drugs and simple things as eating chocolate.
Stephen Toulmin, an English philosopher and logician, identified elements of a persuasive argument. These give useful categories by which an argument may be analyzed. Claim. Step-by-step help in writing your argument paper.
Instructions using Classical, Rogerian, and Toulmin argument strategies. Sample Toulmin Argument. Now that you have had the chance to learn about Toulmin, it’s time to see what a Toulmin argument might look like.
Toulmin Model of Argument. Stephen Toulmin, originally a British logician, is now a professor at USC. He became frustrated with the inability of formal logic to explain everyday arguments, which prompted him to develop his own model of practical reasoning. The Phenomenon Of Drug Addiction - Without noticing, those people create and increase a self-destructive compulsive behavior. Personality of drug addicts is be based on different cycles and types of addiction, such as shoplifting, bets, pornography, alcohol, drugs and simple things as eating chocolate. Create a powerful and persuasive call to action by using Monroe's Motivated Sequence. A simple, five-step strategy that can help you engage and inspire.
Below, you’ll see a sample argumentative essay, written according to MLA formatting guidelines, with a particular emphasis on Toulmin elements.